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importance of pegmatite

One of the main sources for lithium is pegmatite crystals. Please check your email and follow the instructions. Let’s check some facts, properties, and uses of pegmatites rocks at a glance in the current post. The most important thing in pegmatite is the presence of an adequate amount of Rare Earth Elements (REE), which are in high demand in various modern applications, including. However, Pegmatite is a known name in the gemstone industry rather than the construction or dimension stone industry. Heat, pressure, impact, water, scratch, stain, acid, and wind. Granitic Pegmatites: The State of the Art Ð International Symposium. Pegmatite is an exceptionally coarse-grained plutonic igneous rock.Most pegmatites have a mineralogical composition of granite but composition has no defining importance here. Pegmatite is a very coarse-grained igneous rock that has a grain size of 20 mm or more; such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic.. Pegmatites are important because they often contain rare earth minerals and gemstones, such as aquamarine, tourmaline, topaz, fluorite, apatite and corundum, often along with tin and tungsten minerals, among others. Luster of Pegmatite is grainy, pearly and vitreous. The term “pegmatite” refers to any extremely coarse-grained igneous rock, or to a body of such rock in which individual crystals exceed one centimeter (0.4 inches) in diameter. For instance, the Harding pegmatite (figure 6) was an important wartime source of beryl for beryllium, of lepidolite The list varies with country but includes Ta, Nb, Be, Sb, W, rare earth elements (REEs), and Co. Rare-element pegmatites are enriched in The single feature that is diagnostic to all pegmatites is their large size crystal components. Pegmatite is part of WikiProject Geology, an attempt at creating a standardized, informative, comprehensive and easy-to-use geology resource. Pegmatite, meaning “joined together,” was first applied to graphic granite sometime before 1822. A pegmatite is an igneous rock, formed underground, with interlocking crystals usually larger than 2.5 cm in size (1 in). The name pegmatite has nothing to do with the mineral composition of the rock, but rather describes a rock’s physical structure. The term “pegmatite” was first used by a French mineralogist René Haüy but he used this term as a synonym of graphic granite. One unusually large pegmatite in Western Australia (the Greenbushes pegmatite) is mined for lithium which is found in a mineral called spodumene. Required fields are marked *. Hence, pegmatite is often characterised by sampling the individual minerals that compose the pegmatite, and comparisons are made according to mineral chemistry. The entire process forms different types of igneous rocks. Geochemically, pegmatites typically have major element compositions approximating "granite", however, when found in association with granitic plutons it is likely that a pegmatite dike will have a different trace element composition with greater enrichment in large-ion lithophile (incompatible) elements, boron, beryllium, aluminium, potassium and lithium, uranium, thorium, cesium, et cetera. The mineralogy of a pegmatite is in most cases dominated by some form of feldspar, often with mica and usually with quartz, being altogether "granitic" in character. If the pegmatite is sound and attractive, it might be cutinto slabs and polished for building facing, countertops, tile or otherdecorative stone products and sold commercially as a “granite.” Pegmatite is used ingemstone mining because of it has large crystal minerals. Bismuth, molybdenum and tin have been won from pegmatite, but this is not yet an important source of these metals. When instantaneous cooling of lava takes place, so, mineral grains formation cannot take place and result directly into the glass formation. One of the main sources for lithium is pegmatite crystals. If you would like to participate, you can choose to edit this article, or visit the project page for more information. It leaves water-rich residue behind. The most important mineral is feldspar that has many uses un both industry as a mild abrasive, and the home as a cleaning product such as scrubbing powder. When delayed cooling of magma, particularly (more than 5 Km) deep areas of the underground surface of the earth, takes place, the resulting crystallization yields granites and pegmatite deposits. Most pegmatites are found in sheets of rock (dikes and veins) near large masses of igneous rocks called batholiths. Pegmatite is a plutonic rock with exceptionally large crystals. It is because all pegmatite mines are not yielding only gemstones or precious minerals for the different industries. Granitic Pegmatites as Sources of Strategic Metals INTRODUCTION Strategic elements, generally metals, are those that are of greatest risk to supply disruptions or are important to a country’s economy or defence. It is the main source of phosphorous-containing minerals and biological minerals used in Agriculture, Pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. . Besides these, the applications of pegmatites are known as the building stones, facing stones, and paving stones. It also uses in products like camera lenses, surgical instruments, and implants. These deposits are an important link in the world’s supply chain of rare and strategic elements, accounting for about one-third of world lithium production, most of the tantalum, and all of the cesium (U.S. Geological Survey, 2011). However, pegmatite formation is highly complex and takes place in a unique way & conditions. Feldspar within a pegmatite may display exaggerated and perfect twinning, exsolution lamellae, and when affected by hydrous crystallization, macroscale graphic texture is known, with feldspar and quartz intergrown. Pegmatites may have any imaginative magmatic composition and they are actually known to contain a large number of unusual minerals. World of Stones USA is going to introduce you to the untouched or lesser explored rock type on the web and brought public awareness for it. He further subdivides granite pegmatites into The streak of Pegmatite is white whereas its fracture is conchoidal. Syenite pegmatites are quartz depleted and contain large feldspathoid crystals instead. The lithium is an important component in a lot of batteries, including the one likely to be in your phone right now, or the laptop you may be reading this on. It contains comparatively larger crystals with rare mineral content. Similarly, pegmatite is often found within the contact zone of granite, transitional with some greisens, as a late-stage magmatic-hydrothermal effect of syn-metamorphic granitic magmatism. A pegmatite is an igneous rock, formed underground, with interlocking crystals usually larger than 2.5 cm in size (1 in). Luster of Pegmatite is the interaction of light with the surface of Pegmatite. During the slow cooling process under the ground/crust, anhydrous mineralization of feldspar like granitic content takes place. Streak is the color of rock when it is crushed or powdered. Pegmatite rocks are a great source of construction aggregates, road aggregates, and as a base material in landscaping & outdoor paving in nearby areas of pegmatite quarries or mines. Garnet, commonly almandine or spessartine, is a common mineral within pegmatites intruding mafic and carbonate-bearing sequences. Due to atomic and volatile activities, magma gets a high temperature, and subsequently, fluidity increasing in melted magma. This is because of the difficulty in counting and sampling mineral grains in a rock which may have crystals from centimeters to meters across. Pegmatite with blue corundum crystals Pegmatite containing lepidolite, tourmaline, and quartz from the White Elephant Mine in the Black Hills, South Dakota. ..... Click the link for more information. Meaning of pegmatite. What does pegmatite mean? Most pegmatites are composed of quartz, feldspar and mica, having a similar silicic composition as granite. The name pegmatite has nothing to do with the mineral composition of the rock, but rather describes a rock’s physical structure. Within the metamorphic belts, pegmatite tends to concentrate around granitic bodies within zones of low mean strain and within zones of extension, for example within the strain shadow of a large rigid granite body. Nomenclature, Related Deposit Types, and Examples. Despite their smaller size and total estimated resource (3.9 Mt), pegmatites will remain of interest because of their wider geographic distribution and consequently lesser susceptibility to supply disruptions and their more lithium-dominant compositions, which might allow more flexible response to … While difficult to be certain of derivation of pegmatite in the strictest sense, often pegmatites are referred to as "metamorphic", "granitic" or "metasomatic", based on the interpretations of the investigating geologist. We present new data from the B-zone, a pegmatite-rich zone located in NW Strange Lake. What Is Pegmatite? They have interlocking crystals usually larger than 2.5 cm in size. 06th Ð 12th May 2007, Porto, Portugal. Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, France, Spain, Greece, Austria, Slovakia, Turkey, and Ukraine. For the sake of comprehension, we can segregate the formation process of pegmatite in the following steps. Individual crystals over 10 metres (33 ft) long have been found, and many of the world's largest crystals were found within pegmatites. BROWN: PEGMATITES SOUE FAMOUS PEGI..IATITE LOCALITIES IN TTE U.S.S.R. Borie H. Shnakin, United Nations, New York, York 10017 There are nunerous nineralogically diverse pegnaEiEe depoeite in the U.S.S'R.r aone of wtrich are of econooic importance. The uses of main REEs found in pegmatites are: Rare minerals mean, the pegmatites are essential components in creating artwork, jewelry, source of corundum, tourmalines, beryl, and topaz. Pegmatites thus represent exsolved granitic material which crystallises in the country rocks. Pegmatites contain exceptionally large crystals and they contain rarely minerals than other types of rocks. Tantalum, niobium, rare-earth elements are sourced from a few pegmatites worldwide, notably the Greenbushes Pegmatite. The importance of fluids in general has been questioned by some advocates of metamorphic differentiation. Tantalum and niobium minerals (columbite, tantalite) are found in association with spodumene, lepidolite, tourmaline, cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia, considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite. Therefore. When plotted on an exponential scale, the lithium endowment of most individual brine deposits is larger than that of most individual pegmatite deposits, and the average brine deposit, with 1.45 Mt Li, is more than an order of magnitude larger than the average pegmatite deposit, with 0.11 Mt Li (Fig. Often, bulk samples of some 50–60 kg of rock must be crushed to obtain a meaningful and repeatable result. It is useful in high-end product manufacturing, such as mobile phones, DVD players, video cameras, personal computers, video game systems, and televisions. A pegmatite is an igneous rock, formed underground, with interlocking crystals usually larger than 2.5 cm in size (1 in). Compared to typical igneous rocks they are rather inhomogeneous and may show zones with different mineral assemblages. In his important contribution on the geochemical-genetic classi-fication of granite pegmatites, Fersmanloe includes a general classi-fication of pegmatites produced by seven different magmas ranging from basic to acidic. pegmatites can exceed by several orders of magni- tude the amounts found in other rocks. When changes of the main mineral content found, the industrial names of the pegmatites are changing accordingly. It indicates that it is the slowest cooling and crystallization process. However, the fluid chemistry and conditions of alteration (i.e., P, T, pH, fO 2 , ligand activity) in these systems still need to be constrained to evaluate the importance and scale of such hydrothermal mobilization. Canadian Mineralogist Special Publication 10, 347 pp. pegmatite: see granitegranite, coarse-grained igneous rock of even texture and light color, composed chiefly of quartz and feldspars. Pegmatite is often mined for industrial minerals. Much to the satisfaction of the lucky gem or specimen miner, these ultimately form miarolitic cavities - large crystal-lined pockets, in which spectacular crystals of beryl, tourmaline, spodumene, topaz, and accessory minerals can occur. Pegmatite i… Generally, pegmatite is defined as a rock bearing abundant interlocking crystals at least 3 centimeters long. So, why should it take an interest in the discussion on pegmatites like gem industry rocks? Large sheets of mica are mined from pegmatite. Start This article has been rated as Start-Class on the project's quality scale. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole, Ca-plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, feldspathoids and other unusual minerals are known, found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions. It is however impossible to quantify the mineralogy of pegmatite in simple terms because of their varied mineralogy and difficulty in estimating the modal abundance of mineral species which are of only a trace amount. These are, Apatite, Beryl, Feldspar, Fluorite, Garnet, Lepidolite, Quartz, Silica, Spodumene, Topaz. Similarly, the following types of pegmatites known in the stone industry. The consumer electronics products. However, in the water-rich residue of magma, these rare elements migrate to the peripheral regions of the main granite mass in the rock. A pegmatite is an igneous rock that is created underground when interlocking crystals form during the final stages of a magma chamber’s cooling. Due to stunning appearance and mineral values, pegmatites are high-quality decorative aggregates. Most pegmatites are granites with or without exotic minerals but mafic pegmatites (gabbro, diorite) are known as well. Click the photo to see it at full size. When the dominance of one of the Common Minerals in Granite Pegmatite takes place, the look-n-feel of the rocks changes accordingly. An important aspect in these pegmatites is change of coloration of K-feldspar, from the first intermediate zones (reddish owing to minute hematite inclusions) to the third ones (white). Pegmatite body size is on the order of magnitude of one to a few hundred meters. So, why should it take an interest in the discussion on pegmatites like gem industry rocks? Pegmatites are the primary source of lithium either as spodumene, lithiophyllite or usually from lepidolite. It forms at a late stage in the solidification of granite bodies. Subsequently, it has been extended to refer to any abnormally coarse grained rock of overall igneous character. [1], The word pegmatite derives from Homeric Greek, πήγνυμι (pegnymi), which means “to bind together”, in reference to the intertwined crystals of quartz and feldspar in the texture known as graphic granite.[2]. The majority of the world's beryllium is sourced from non-gem quality beryl within pegmatite. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2A7, Canada, [email protected] ABSTRACT Your information is safe and will never be shared. In simple words, it is suspended mineral grains and dissolved gases. The product of pegmatite decomposition is euclase. Mining a pegmatite is like butchering a hog these is a demand for practically everything you find. The number of crystal nuclei in pegmatites must be low and the ability of the necessary chemical components needed for crystal growth to migrate to the crystal surfaces must be enhanced to allow gigantic crystals to grow in pegmatites. It is also used as a filler in many products. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have become the energy storage solution of choice. ... which may be of economic importance. Due to pressure, magma finds its way out to the top of the surface through blasts, quakes, fissures, and existing volcanic vents. The hardness of Pegmatite is 7 whereas its compressive strength is 178.54 N/mm 2. Miarolitic pegmatites emplaced at shallow levels under low pressure retain a vapor phase in the melt upon ascent through the Earth's crust. The most important thing in pegmatite is the presence of an adequate amount of Rare Earth Elements (REE), which are in high demand in various modern applications, including The consumer electronics products. The Importance of Tectonic Setting in Understanding Granitic Pegmatites ROBER T F. MARTIN Dpt. Pegmatite is a rock type based purely on grain size. Although most recent investigators have favored the concept of segregation or injection of magmatic fluids, no one theory seems capable of accounting for all observed features of pegmatite … 5 Ways to Prevent Weed Growth Between Paving Stones, Paver Edging – All Need to Know About Installation, Borders & Restraints, Flagstone Pavers – Best Natural Stone for Your Backyard Patio Design, The Pros and Cons of Paver Patios That You Must Know. The most interesting thing during the igneous rock formation is the speed of cooling and crystallization of various minerals existing in the magma as well as in the surrounding substances/rocks/stuff of the earth. In normal conditions, the lava cools and mineral grain formation happens. The term “pegmatite” was first used by a French mineralogist René Haüy but he used this term as a synonym of graphic granite. India, Iran, Japan, Nepal, China, Russia, Saudi Arabia, North Korea, and South Korea. Similarly, crystal texture and form within pegmatitic rock may be taken to extreme size and perfection. Well, World of Stones USA is a natural stone supplier mainly for the dimension stone industry. It is the final stage of the crystallization of the magma. Granite pegmatites are the most common and have the greatest economic and mineralogical importance. Pegmatite are used asarchitectural stone. By property, Tantalum is very hard, extremely corrosion-resistant, easily fabricated, and is a good conductor of heat and electricity. For instance, when pegmatites have a mineral composition similar to the Granites, such as the predominance of quartz, feldspar, and mica, they usually term as Granite Pegmatites. We know magma is a hot suspension of the earth, making fundamental elements. According to Wikipedia, Pegmatites are Extreme Igneous Rocks. Beryl is concentrated in several different parts of these pegmatites in so many parts, in fact, that all the known im­ portant kinds of beryl concentrations are represented in this small group of pegmatites. Thanks for signing up. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Feldspar is another mineral frequently mined from pegmatite. Pegmatite bodies are usually of minor size compared to typical intrusive rock bodies. Pegmatite may be cut and polished for architectural stone, but the true economic importance of the rock is as a source of elements and gemstones. High vapor and water pressure, to assist in the enhancement of conditions of diffusivity, High concentrations of fluxing elements such as, Low thermal gradients coupled with a high wall rock temperature, explaining the preponderance for pegmatite to occur only within. For example. Perthite feldspar within a pegmatite often shows gigantic perthitic texture visible to the naked eye. Do you know pegmatites occur across the planet and found in almost all continents? Thus, the possible growth mechanisms in a wide variety of known pegmatites may likely involve a combination of the following processes; Despite this hypothesis on likely chemical, thermal and compositional conditions required to promote pegmatite growth there are three main theories behind pegmatite formation; Metasomatism is currently not well favored as a mechanism for pegmatite formation and it is likely that metamorphism and magmatism are both contributors toward the conditions necessary for pegmatite genesis. Australian Peninsulas, including New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, & Western Australia. Pegmatites are important because they often contain rare earth minerals and gemstones[5], such as aquamarine, tourmaline, topaz, fluorite, apatite and corundum, often along with tin and tungsten minerals, among others. They are considered to form by fractional crystallization from the residual melt highly enriched in incompatible elements and volatiles. For electric and hybrid vehicles with new battery technologies. Pegmatites may be mined because of their high content of feldspars, clay (if weathered), mica, or many metal-bearing minerals. The commercial significance of pegmatites is its rare elements/mineral constituents. The Kings Mountain pegmatite belt of North Carolina also had significant production from pegmatites, and the area may still contain as much as 750 million metric tons (Mt) of ore containing 5 Mt lithium metal (Kesler and others, 2012). Occasionally, enrichment in the unusual trace elements will result in crystallisation of equally unusual and rare minerals such as beryl, tourmaline, columbite, tantalite, zinnwaldite and so forth. Most pegmatites have a mineralogical composition of granite but composition has no defining importance here. Pegmatite, meaning “joined together,” was first applied to graphic granite sometime before 1822. Hence, the pressure in the mantle or crust of the earth. Pegmatite Pegmatite is an exceptionally coarse-grained plutonic igneous rock. Beyond that, pegmatite may include most minerals associated with granite and granite-associated hydrothermal systems, granite-associated mineralisation styles, for example greisens, and somewhat with skarn associated mineralisation. pegmatite, in a few cases, could be explained by the action of hot alteration fluids upon a rock mass, with bulk chemical and textural change. Pegmatite is chemically identical to granite, but has a much coarser crystal structure. Bluestone Pavers – Why Popular Choice for Outdoor Paving. The hardness of Pegmatite is 7 whereas its compressive strength is 178.54 N/mm 2. The term “Pegmatite” was first used by a French mineralogist René Haüy for “Graphic Granites” like rocks. It is used as a primary ingredient for making glass and ceramics. Definition of pegmatite in the Definitions.net dictionary. Subsequently, it has been extended to refer to any abnormally coarse grained rock of overall igneous character. Pegmatite rocks are a great source of construction aggregates, road aggregates, and as a base material in landscaping &, Besides these, the applications of pegmatites are known as the building stones, facing stones, and. These are used to make components for electronic devices, retardation plates, circuit boards, optical filters, detector windows, and many other products. The automobile Catalytic Converters and Rechargeable Batteries. The Alto Ligonha pegmatite field was an important producer of fine crystallized pegmatite minerals during the 1930's to 1970's. The minerals lepidolite, spodumene, and lithiophyllite in pegmatite are the primary source of the alkali metal lithium. The automobile Catalytic Converters and Rechargeable Batteries. Pegmatites enriched in rare elements are holocrystalline rocks composed of igneous rock-forming minerals, typically of granitic composition and by their highly variable grain size, including extremely coarse crystals. A pegmatite is an igneous rock that is created underground when interlocking crystals form during the final stages of a magma chamber’s cooling. Pegmatite is most often sold commercially as a granite product. Pegmatites usually contain precious gemstones varieties such as topaz, emerald, and aquamarine gems. In the aircraft industry, it is useful in alloys making for jet engine components. Now, the water-rich residue of magma completely cools and crystallizes to form small bodies. It usually contains small quantities of mica or hornblende, and minor accessory minerals may be present. You must confirm your email address before we can send you. Crystal size and mineral assemblages are usually oriented parallel to the wall rock or even concentric for pegmatite lenses.[4]. Rocks with similar texture to pegmatites are called pegmatitic. Streak is the color of rock when it is crushed or powdered. London, D. (2008): Pegmatites. Pegmatite is difficult to sample representatively due to the large size of the constituent mineral crystals. Pegmatite is an igneous rock that form end of the stage a magma’s crystallization. Pegmatite, if sound and appealing, might be cut into slabs, polished, and used for building facades, countertops, tile, or other decorative stone products. We respect your privacy. The lithium is an important component in a lot of batteries, including the one likely to be in your phone right now, or the laptop you may be reading this on. Most pegmatites are found in sheets of rock (dikes and veins) near large masses of igneous rocks called batholiths. There is often no meaningful way to distinguish pegmatites according to chemistry due to the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample, but often groups of pegmatites can be distinguished on contact textures, orientation, accessory minerals and timing. The mineral pollucite is the main source of the metal cesium. These include spodumene, microcline, beryl, and tourmaline.[3]. The erupted magma is now known as Volcanic Lava, and that goes to the cooling process; hence, crystallization of various minerals takes place. Some skarns associated with granites also tend to host pegmatites. Some Magma comes out on the surface of the earth while some remain beneath the ground or crust of the earth. Gemstones found inpegmatite include: amazonite, apatite, aquamarine, beryl, chrysoberyl, emerald,garnet, kunzite, lepidolite, spodumene, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, and manyothers. Your email address will not be published. Here, extremity means more than one thing. In most cases, there is no particular genetic significance to the presence of rare mineralogy within a pegmatite, however it is possible to see some causative and genetic links between, say, tourmaline-bearing granite dikes and tourmaline-bearing pegmatites within the area of influence of a composite granite intrusion (Mount Isa Inlier, Queensland, Australia). Aplite and porphyry dikes and veins may intrude pegmatites and wall rocks adjacent to intrusions, creating a confused sequence of felsic intrusive apophyses (thin branches or offshoots of igneous bodies) within the aureole of some granites. Pegmatite an igneous rock that is usually found in veins. Let’s see how it is. the Pine Top pegmatite is a potentially important source of potash feldspar. Aluminum Oxide, CaO, Iron(III) Oxide, FeO, Potassium Oxide, Magnesium Carbonate, MgO, & Phosphorus Pentoxide. The gemstones found in pegmatite include apatite, aquamarine, beryl, emerald, garnet, topaz, zircon, kunzite, and many others. By definition, Pegmatite rock is holocrystalline and composed of interlocking phaneritic crystals. They also yield significant quantities of gem minerals, mica, molybdenite, cassiterite , tungsten minerals, rare-earth minerals, and certain types of kaolin, either directly or as the sources of placer deposits. Commercial Applications of Pegmatites: The most important thing in pegmatite is the presence of an adequate amount of Rare Earth Elements (REE), which are in high demand in various modern applications, including. It also yields the rocks that have values in construction and dimension stone industries, after careful mining around the globe. The localitiee reviewed Lelow are paet and present producere of nany of Ehe is a natural stone supplier mainly for the dimension stone industry. Despite their smaller size and total estimated resource (3.9 Mt), pegmatites will remain of interest because of their wider geographic distribution and consequently lesser susceptibility to supply disruptions and their more lithium-dominant compositions, which might allow more flexible response to … Pegmatites can be classified according to the elements or mineral of interest, for instance "lithian pegmatite"[7] to describe a Li-bearing or Li-mineral bearing pegmatite, or "boron pegmatite" for those containing tourmaline. Granitic and syenitic pegmatite deposits are the chief source of commercial feldspar, sheet mica, and beryllium, tantalum–niobium, and lithium minerals. The crystallization of mineral grains forms the igneous rocks. Common colors are gray, white, and pink. Black, brown, cream, green, grey, pink, red, rust, silver, white, and yellow. For portable electronic devices such as laptops and smartphones. In the United States, lithium was first mined from pegmatite orebodies in South Dakota in the late 1800s. It is using in metalworking tools making, chemical process equipment, nuclear reactors, and missile parts. The automobile Catalytic Converters and Rechargeable Batteries. Pegmatites associated with granitic domes within the Archaean Yilgarn Craton intruding ultramafic and mafic rocks contain red, orange and brown almandine garnet. Therefore, an important aspect of these pegmatites is the high proportion of Fe in the first intermediate zones, which drastically decrease in the third. Volcanic rocks:Subvolcanic rocks:Plutonic rocks: Learn how and when to remove this template message, Pegmatopia: David London, School of Geology & Geophysics, University of Oklahoma, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pegmatite&oldid=995809406, Articles needing additional references from November 2009, All articles needing additional references, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, pegmatite fluids are created by removal of, pegmatites tend to occur in the aureoles of granites in most cases, and are usually granitic in character, often closely matching the compositions of nearby granites.

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