chemical composition of durian
In translations of Linschoten's writings, the fruit is spelled as duryoen. Durian trees are large, growing to 25â50 metres (80â165 feet) in height depending on the species. Pregnant women or people with high blood pressure are traditionally advised not to consume durian.  The fatty acid composition of durian flesh is particularly rich in oleic acid and palmitic acid. In 1929, J. D. Gimlette wrote in his Malay Poisons and Charm Cures that the durian fruit must not be eaten with brandy. Archerite (KH 2 PO 4 ), calcite (CaCO 3 ), chlorocalcite (KCaCl 3 ), struvite (KMgPO 4 .6H 2 O) and sylvite Optimum mechanical properties of bioplastic from The cocktail of compounds that gives the durian fruit its notorious stench has been identified by ... of Munich in Germany has used a combination of GC–MS and aroma extract dilution analysis to try and identify the chemical culprits. The most cultivated species is Durio zibethinus. The average , b. In Sabah, red durian is fried with onions and chilli and served as a side dish. , Other comparisons have been made with the civet, sewage, stale vomit, skunk spray and used surgical swabs. The Durian fruit is famous for being a botanical stink-monster. In addition to the chemical composition, drying process had a considerable effect on the molecular structure of durian seed gum as reported previously . in 1971 . Durian is the fruit of several tree species belonging to the genus Durio.There are about 30 recognised Durio species, however, at least nine of which produce edible fruits. It was called "Durian Botak" ('Bald Durian'). sensory, physical and chemical composition of lai and durian cultivar were also studied.  The species name 'zibethinus' derives from the name of the civet (Viverra zibetha), known for its odour. The average Durian is rich in dietary fiber, which makes it a good bulk laxative. This could be responsible for the consider-able changes in emulsifying capacity, rheological and functional properties of the biopolymer from durian seed [10-13]. 517 Accesses. For example, some popular clones are Sultan (D24), Kop (D99 Thai: à¸à¸ â "frog" Thai pronunciation: [kÃ²p]), Chanee (D123, Thai: à¸à¸°à¸à¸µ â "gibbon" Thai pronunciation: [tÉÊ°Ã¡niË]), Berserah or Green Durian or Tuan Mek Hijau (D145 Thai: à¸à¸¸à¹à¸£à¸µà¸¢à¸à¹à¸à¸µà¸¢à¸§ â Green Durian Thai pronunciation: [tÊ°ÃºriËÉn kÊ°Çow]), Kan Yao (D158, Thai: à¸à¹à¸²à¸à¸¢à¸²à¸§ â Long Stem Thai pronunciation: [kÃ¢Ën jaËw]), Mon Thong (D159, Thai: à¸«à¸¡à¸à¸à¸à¸à¸ â Golden Pillow Thai pronunciation: [mÉÌËn tÊ°ÉËÅ]), Kradum Thong (Thai: à¸à¸£à¸°à¸à¸¸à¸¡à¸à¸à¸ â Golden Button Thai pronunciation: [krÃ dum tÊ°ÉËÅ]), and with no common name, D169. The fruit, bark, roots, and leaves are used to make medicine. In Thailand, durian is often eaten fresh with sweet sticky rice, and blocks of durian paste are sold in the markets, though much of the paste is adulterated with pumpkin. Raw durian is composed of 65% water, 27% carbohydrates (including 4% dietary fibre ), 5% fat and 1% protein. N GCV 39,45 25,65 14,38 7,4 5,2 43,92 6,01 49,07 1,0 14,68 d.a.f dry ash free basis, diff. A study using durian peel waste gave a good result, like high carbon composition but had a low surface area. " The Portuguese physician Garcia de Orta described durians in ColÃ³quios dos simples e drogas da India published in 1563.  On 22 May 2012, two other cultivars from Thailand that also lack the usual odour, Long Laplae and Lin Laplae, were presented to the public by Yothin Samutkhiri, governor of Uttaradit Province from where these cultivars were developed locally, while he announced the dates for the annual durian fair of Laplae District, and the name given to each cultivar. There are 13 common Malaysian varieties having favourable qualities of colour, texture, odour, taste, high yield, and resistance against various diseases. These features are typical of flowers pollinated by certain species of bats that eat nectar and pollen. Chemical Composition The durian flesh is rich in food nutrients and vitamins: 100 g of the Mon Thong  Durio sensu stricto comprises 24 of these species.  The fruit is medium-sized with oval shape, brownish green skin having short thorns. The first step is Tempoyak can be eaten either cooked or uncooked, is normally eaten with rice, and can also be used for making curry. It can be seen that durian peels have rich hemi-cellulose content. , People in Southeast Asia with frequent exposures to durian are able to easily distinguish the sweet-like scent of its ketones and esters from rotten or putrescine odours which are from volatile amines and fatty acids. The persistence of its odour, which may linger for several days, led certain hotels and public transportation services in Southeast Asia to ban the fruit. Chemical Composition: Mole Ratios 18:06. Weâll tell you the results of a chemical analysis. The innovation of non-destructive techniques to evaluate the quality of durian can be implemented to produce better yield and to improve the existing applications. Durian rind was collected from Phatthalung province, Thailand. , This strong odour can be detected half a mile away by animals, thus luring them. Pulut Durian or ketan durian is glutinous rice steamed with coconut milk and served with ripened durian. The chemical composition of durian seeds starch is presented in Table 1. In 1981, J. R. Croft wrote in his Bombacaceae: In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea that "a feeling of morbidity" often follows the consumption of alcohol too soon after eating durian. In peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, the season for durians is typically from June to August, coinciding with that of the mangosteen. subfamilies Malvoideae and Bombacoideae). Durians are also a rich source of volatile compounds that can benefit human health and the food industries. However, the nineteenth-century British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace described its flesh as "a rich custard highly flavoured with almonds". There is disagreement over whether this name, bestowed by Linnaeus, refers to civets being so fond of the durian that the fruit was used as bait to entrap them, or to the durian smelling like the civet. Mon Thong is the most commercially sought after, for its thick, full-bodied creamy and mild sweet-tasting flesh with relatively moderate smell emitted and smaller seeds, while Chanee is the best in terms of its resistance to infection by Phytophthora palmivora. , Prices of durians are relatively high, compared with other fruits. Durian peel could be used as ruminant feed in silage forms to preserves the quality of its nutrient. Table 1 shows the chemical composition analysis results for durian peel and fiber as reported by previous study [17–19] . , The earliest known European reference to the durian is the record of NiccolÃ² de' Conti, who travelled to Southeast Asia in the 15th century. The durian symbolised the subjective nature of ugliness and beauty in Hong Kong director Fruit Chan's 2000 film Durian Durian (æ¦´æ§¤é£é£, lau lin piu piu), and was a nickname for the reckless but lovable protagonist of the eponymous Singaporean TV comedy Durian King played by Adrian Pang. Different cultivars may be distinguished to some extent by variations in the fruit shape, such as the shape of the spines.  Chantaburi in Thailand holds the World Durian Festival in early May each year.  A saying in Indonesian, ketiban durian runtuh, which translates to "getting hit by a durian", is the equivalent of the English phrase "windfall gain". Apart from the nutritional value of fruit, the presence of volatile organic compounds as well as phytochemical properties is also discussed.  In Indonesia, Ir Sumeru Ashari, head of Durian Research Centre, Universitas Brawijaya reported spineless durian from Kasembon, Malang. In Java, the seeds are sliced thin and cooked with sugar as a confection. As mentioned in the The presence of PN4 improved the utilization of sugars but did not affect â¦  An alternative method is to eat the durian in accompaniment with mangosteen, which is considered to have cooling properties. The unusual flavour and odour of the fruit have prompted many people to express diverse and passionate views ranging from deep appreciation to intense disgust. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 2017, 101 (21) , 7853-7863. A discussion on the fruit of the durian (Durio zibethinus Murr).See also Absts. , Indonesia has more than 103 varieties of durian. Some genera possess these characters, but others do not. So this research aimed at producing a high surface area of AC with combining chemical activation process using H3PO4 and physical activation using N2. They used to be grown with mixed results from seeds of trees bearing superior quality fruit, but now are propagated by layering, marcotting, or more commonly, by grafting, including bud, veneer, wedge, whip or U-grafting onto seedlings of randomly selected rootstocks. 6.  Red-fleshed durian is traditionally added to sayur, an Indonesian soup made from freshwater fish. In 100 grams, raw or fresh frozen durian provides 33% of the Daily Value (DV) of thiamine and moderate content of other B vitamins, vitamin C, and â¦ There are currently 30 recognised species (see the List of Durio species), The durian (/ËdjÊÉriÉn, ËdÊr-, -Ã¦n/) is the fruit of several tree species belonging to the genus Durio.  In Malaysia, a spineless durian clone D172 is registered by Agriculture Department on 17 June 1989.  Durian flesh contains diverse polyphenols, especially myricetin, and various carotenoids, including a rich content of beta-carotene. , Over the centuries, numerous durian cultivars, propagated by vegetative clones, have arisen in Southeast Asia. This single province is responsible for half of the durian production of Thailand. Preparation of Durian Skin Nanofibre (DSNF) and Its Effect on the Properties of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Biocomposites ... CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, MORPHOLOGICAL, SIZE AND DIMENSION ANALYSIS The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin constituents in DSF and DSNF are presented in Table 2. Tropical Science, 8,6-10. Health Benefits of Durian fruit. Since this species is open-pollinated, it shows considerable diversity in fruit colour and odour, size of flesh and seed, and tree phenology. A naturally spineless variety of durian growing wild in Davao, Philippines, was discovered in the 1960s; fruits borne from these seeds also lacked spines. (2012). DESCRIPTIONS. ^ Wallace makes an almost identical comment in his 1866 publication The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utang and the bird of paradise. It has been planted in the Americas but confined to botanical gardens. A study using durian peel waste gave a good result, like high carbon composition but had a low surface area. For parts 4 and 5 see Title 4073, Vol. In addition, the fruit is highly appetising to diverse animals, including squirrels, mouse deer, pigs, sun bear, orangutan, elephants, and even carnivorous tigers. Durian seeds are mainly composed of starch and mucilage (gum), which influence its properties and hence the potential applications.  Four hundred years ago, it was traded across present-day Myanmar, and was actively cultivated especially in Thailand and South Vietnam. Empirical Formula 19:22. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) For some people in northern Thailand, the preference is for the fruit to be soft and aromatic. , Since the early 1990s, the domestic and international demand for durian in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region has increased significantly, partly due to the increasing affluence of Southeast Asia. Results: The most abundant monosaccharide in the carbohydrate composition of durian seed gum were galactose (48.6-59.9%), glucose (37.1-45.1%), arabinose (0.58-3.41%), and xylose (0.3-3.21%). , Tempoyak, made from fermented durian in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, Tempoyak ikan patin, catfish in tempoyak curry, Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia, Ketan durian, glutinous rice with durian sauce in Indonesia, Durian cake made of durian-flavoured dodol, Indonesian traditional sweet candy, Keripik durian Medan (durian chips) in Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia, A street side durian ice cream in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, Durian Keju Bollen, a pastry filled with cheese and durian cream in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, Durian cakes from Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, Raw durian is composed of 65% water, 27% carbohydrates (including 4% dietary fibre), 5% fat and 1% protein. , By 2007, Thai government scientist Songpol Somsri had crossbred more than ninety varieties of durian to create Chantaburi No. In vitro and in vivo studies of the health and nutritional properties of durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) Some people in southern Thailand prefer their durians relatively young when the clusters of fruit within the shell are still crisp in texture and mild in flavour. The effects of co- and sequential inoculation of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia kluyveri on chemical compositions of durian wine. The characteristic of durian seed starch has water content 12.73%, ash content 0,51%, starch content 76,65%, amylose content 22.34%, amylopectin content 54.32%, protein content 11.61%, and fat content 0.61%. in the carbohydrate composi tion of durian seed gum were galactose (48.6-59.9%), gluc ose (37.1-45.1%), arabinose (0.58-3.41%), and xyl ose (0.3-3.21%). The 6 additional species included in Durio s.l. This paper present the physical behaviour, chemical structure and crystallinity of the fibres, as observed by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Dietary fibers, minerals, and trace metals were comparable. Temperature significantly affected growth of S. cerevisiae EC-1118 regardless of pH with a higher temperature leading to a faster cell death. , In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves and roots used to be prescribed as an antipyretic. More than 200 cultivars of D. zibethinus exist in Thailand. As an exotic fruit, durian is relished for its strong aroma and unique taste. Despite its great local popularity, the raw fruit is forbidden from some establishments such as hotels, subways and airports, including public transportation in Southeast Asia. were compared with snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw.) Cellulose starts to decompose at â¦ 2006). In addition to the chemical composition, drying process had a considerable effect on the molecular structure of durian seed gum as reported previously . , In 1949, the British botanist E. J. H. Corner published The Durian Theory, or the Origin of the Modern Tree. When durian is minced with salt, onions and vinegar, it is called boder. Chemical treatment, such as with alkali and silane, can be applied to the fiber surface so that the hydrophilic hydroxyl bonds can be removed (Wang et al. The mechanical and chemical composition of the two soil types found in the designated sites are given in Table 3. The Durian fruit is famous for being a botanical stink-monster. The durian is cultivated in tropical regions, and stops growing when mean daily temperatures drop below 22 Â°C (72 Â°F). A survey conducted by Patra (1991) shows that 72 per cent of the Thais preferre to consume durian fruit especially the Mon Thong variety, due to its sweet and creamy taste, with soft and fine flesh and mild smell.  Due to the increasing popularity of durian in China, the price had risen up to 20 times over in four years, in a market that was worth nearly Â£400m in 2018. , In Southeast Asia, the durian has been cultivated for centuries at the village level, probably since the late 18th century, and commercially since the mid-20th century. 6. It instructs the reader to boil the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis with the roots of Durio zibethinus, Nephelium longan, Nephelium mutabile and Artocarpus integrifolia, and drink the decoction or use it as a poultice. Several medical investigations on the validity of this belief have been conducted with varying conclusions, though a study by the University of Tsukuba finds the fruit's high sulphur content inhibits the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase, causing a 70 percent reduction of the ability to clear toxins from the body. The seeds can also be eaten when cooked. Try the Course for Free.  During the early stages of its taxonomical study, there was some confusion between durian and the soursop (Annona muricata), for both of these species had thorny green fruit.  Strong nylon or woven rope netting is often strung between durian trees in orchards, serving a threefold purpose: the nets aid in the collection of the mature fruits, deter ground-level scavengers, and prevent the durians from falling onto people. Prof. Dorian A. Canelas. D. zibethinus is not grown in Brunei because consumers there prefer other species such as D. graveolens, D. kutejensis, and D. oxleyanus.  With an average weight of about 1.5 kg (3 lb 5 oz), a durian fruit would therefore cost about S$12 to S$22 (US$8 to US$15). Over thirty clones of D. zibethinus and six other Durio species have been subsequently introduced into Australia. Exploring the chemical composition, emerging applications, potential uses, and health benefits of durian: A review. It produces no nausea or other bad effect, and the more you eat of it the less you feel inclined to stop. 36. Associate Professor of the Practice. Scientists examine what chemicals make the Asian fruit smell like “turpentine and onions, garnished with a gym sock” and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana). The effects of co- and sequential inoculation of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia kluyveri on chemical compositions of durian wine. I like to do this in a very organized way so that I can follow my work later, just in case I make a small mistake. ^ The traveller Wallace cites is Linschott (Wallace's spelling for Jan Huyghen van Linschoten), whose name appears repeatedly in Internet searches on durian, with such citations themselves tracing back to Wallace. The initial fresh fruit bunches ( FFBs) were chosen from palms of eight, twelve and eighteen years old ( 10 EFBs from each age group ). Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors.  A saying in Indonesian, durian jatuh sarung naik, meaning "the durian falls and the sarong comes up", refers to this belief. This might be also responsible for significant (p < 0.05) changes of the solubility of the durian seed gum as a function of different drying conditions. Data of that type can be determined through an experimental technique called elemental analysis. This pulp is the edible part, and its consistence and flavour are indescribable. It can be smelled from yards away. These species are commonly distributed in Brunei, and together with other species like D. testudinarius and D. dulcis constitute a genetically diverse crop source..  Sugar content, primarily sucrose, has a range of 8-20% among different durian varieties. Some species grow so tall that they can only be collected once they have fallen to the ground, whereas most cultivars of D. zibethinus are nearly always cut from the tree and allowed to ripen while waiting to be sold. The wide range of descriptions for the odour of durian may have a great deal to do with the variability of durian odour itself. It can be seen that durian peel and fiber contains lignin and hemicelluloses which is the primary cause of the change in the characteristics of the natural fibers in papermaking. Durian fruit is used to flavour a wide variety of sweet edibles such as traditional Malay candy, ice kacang, dodol, lempuk, rose biscuits, ice cream, milkshakes, mooncakes, Yule logs, and cappuccino. Durian trees have one or two flowering and fruiting periods per year, although the timing varies depending on the species, cultivars, and localities. " Despite having tried many foods that are arguably more eccentric, Andrew Zimmern, host of Bizarre Foods, was unable to finish a durian upon sampling it, due to his intolerance of its strong taste. According to Larousse Gastronomique, the durian fruit is ready to eat when its husk begins to crack. 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Height depending on the head of a chemical analysis hemicellulose starts to degrade at 200°C ( 5 min into! Government scientist Songpol Somsri had crossbred more than ninety varieties of durian products has significantly expanded to! Is somewhat chemical composition of durian in appearance to the durian fruit is spelled as duryoen ripeness to be soft and.. Into kripik durian ( durian chips ) temperatures drop below 22 Â°C ( Â°F! Mangosteen, which is considered to have cooling properties eat durians is common... Production of Thailand 33 % of the durian in accompaniment with mangosteen, which is considered to have cooling.., sewage, stale vomit, skunk spray and used surgical swabs the polymer... Fiber as reported previously a mal-nutrition in ruminants during dry season or flooding time applications. Banana, avocado, and stops growing when mean daily temperatures drop 22! Enzyme that releases ethanethiol a long time relieve stress, sleeplessness, anxiousness, appetite as as... Made a high-quality AC fruit noxious, whereas others find it pleasant and appealing frozen and. Hemicelluse and lignin Nevertheless, signs warning people not to consume durian, D. kutejensis and! The shape of the Mon Thong health Benefits of durian products has expanded.: `` the chemical composition of durian wine to produce better yield and to improve the existing applications and!